Baldwin is a town in Duval County, Florida, United States. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with the city of Jacksonville in 1968, Baldwin, along with Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach and Neptune Beach, remained quasi-independent. Like the other towns, it maintains its own municipal government, but its residents vote in the Jacksonville mayoral election and vote for the Jacksonville City Council; unlike the others, Baldwin no longer supports its own police force. The population was 1,425 at the 2010 census.
The town was first settled under the name of Thigpen in 1846. Mr. Thigpen had opened a tavern to benefit the stagecoach line at the crossroads of what is today Baldwin. He supplied horses for the stage and shelter and food for the passengers. The first railroad was built in Thigpen in 1857 with a second crossing it in 1859. The name was changed to Baldwin in honor of Dr. Abel Seymour Baldwin, the president of the Florida, Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad, a railroad that ran from Lake City to Jacksonville. Further development in Baldwin led to the establishment of a telegraphic line running from Jacksonville to Baldwin.
In 1965 Baldwin became the first Duval County school to be integrated
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,634 people, 628 households, and 432 families residing in the town. The population density was 767.3 inhabitants per square mile (296.2/km²). There were 702 housing units at an average density of 329.6 per square mile (127.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 67.07% White, 30.91% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population.
There were 628 households, out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 22.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.2% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the town, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $28,603, and the median income for a family was $31,023. Males had a median income of $28,350 versus $23,056 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,560. About 17.6% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over.